Katrin Muradas, MD, Laura Costa, MD, Roberto Seijas, MD, PhD, Pedro Álvarez-Díaz, MD, Oscar Ares, MD, PhD, Andrea Sallent, MD, Ramon Cugat, MD, PhD
The “female athlete triad” refers to a situation that is often seen among women who perform high performance sports. The triad is composed of three pathologies that are more commonly observed separately; eating disorders, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhoea and decreased bone mineral density. These three components are interrelated and its development is based on low energy reserve of the athlete. Although this triad was described more than a decade ago, the society and the athletes are not aware of the serious long-term consequences. Therefore, a review of the concept analyzing its components and exposing the short and long-term consequences is required. Moreover, several preventive measures will be proposed in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence. To carry out this study an advanced search on Pubmed and ScienceDirect was performed, obtaining a total of 25 current articles that have been used for review of the Female Athlete Triad. In conclusion, the most serious consequences of this triad are infertility and premature osteoporosis. The severity of this syndrome lies in the late-onset of its consequences, although prevention must be performed from the very beginning of professional sports activity.
Key words: Female athlete triad; Eating disorders; Amenorrhea; Decreased bone mineral density; Prevention
Muradas K, Costa L, Seijas R, Álvarez-Díaz P, Ares O, Sallent A, Cugat R. Role of Growth Factors in Bone-Tendon-Bone ACL Surgery: Time for Maturation of the ACL Graft and the Patellar Tendon Donor Site. International Journal of Orthopaedics 2015; 2(1): 205-209